What you do in your early adult years can have
major repercussions on the health of your brain. Making good lifestyle choices
early on can prevent your cognitive abilities from declining as you age.
Staying away from drugs, alcohol and smoking can mean a world of difference.
While sadly, there’s still no cure for Alzheimer’s, there are a number of ways to help slow down, maybe even reverse, its symptoms by engaging in brain-healthy activities that protect the brain and urges brain cells to become more active and alert.
1. Stay socially active
There’s no denying how fun it is doing activities with your friends, or even going to new places and meeting new people. We are social creatures. When you connect with others, even through a simple smile or handshake, your brain releases the happy hormone known as oxytocin. This elevates your mood, reduces stress and boosts cognitive functions.
2. Step outside your comfort zone
As we age, we become stuck in a certain routine.
Adults don’t like trying new things, in general, which could be a reason why
our brains start shrinking as we age. As kids, we always enjoyed trying new
activities and doing things we’ve never done before, but as we grow older,
trying new things makes us more uncomfortable and we fear rejection and
embarrassment which reduces brain stimulation and increases cognitive decline.
3. Exercise, eat, sleep
Getting regular exercise comes with a slew of
benefits; physical, emotional and most importantly, mental. It can improve
mental processing speed, memory while slowing down, even reversing, cognitive
impairment. And exercising doesn’t necessarily mean high-intensity, hours on
end, rigorous movements. It could be a simple 30-minute walk, going for a swim,
gardening, or doing yoga. The point is to keep your muscles engaged and your
blood pumping for no less than half an hour.
Maintain a well-balanced diet of fruits,
vegetables, protein, whole wheat and omega-3 fatty acids. Try to stay away from
foods high in sugar, carbohydrates and trans fats. Studies show that there are
foods that improve brain health are avocado, olive oil, spices such as
turmeric, curry and ginger, nuts and berries since they’re rich in
phytochemicals which are loaded with antioxidants and anti-inflammatory
properties. They promote good health and can slow the decline in memory
function by aiding the metabolism process of glucose in the brain. It also
boosts cognitive signals. Drinking 2 and a half cups of blueberry juice or
concord grape juice daily for 12 weeks consecutively has proven to prevent,
even reverse, cognitive impairment and neuronal functioning.
We all should be getting, on average, 8 hours of
quality sleep each night. If you get less than 7 hours of sleep at night, that
could increase your risk of cognitive decline in the long run. What you do in
your early adulthood years can have a serious effect on your brain health as
you age – it’s all connected. A review of observational studies carried out in
2014 states that, “healthy sleep appears to play an important role in
maintaining brain health with age, and may play a key role in [Alzheimer’s
4. Listen to music.
Music engages the right side of the brain, allowing you to focus more on what you’re doing rather than letting your mind wander. It also reduces stress and anxiety. What’s even interesting is that setting words to music improves memory and concentration skills. It also boosts brain processes and can even reverse Alzheimer’s symptoms.
5. Play games
Your brain needs exercise too to stay young and fit. Mental activities slow down cognitive decline and increase focus and concentration. And now there’s an endless array of mental puzzles to choose from. You can buy them at bookstores, play on your phone or tablet. Even adding up your grocery bill in your head is a great way to keep your brain pumped and alert.
Reading, learning a new language or playing a
musical instrument are great examples of activities that keep your brain
operating at its best. Another great way to create new brain pathways is to try
something new, like taking a different route to work or write with your
non-dominant hand. Your brain wants to be challenged, so why not give it what
A Final Note
While it’s a normal part of life to experience a slight decline in our mental abilities as we age, we have the ability to slow it down. It’s never too early to start, no matter where you are in life so you can keep your brain healthy so you can age gracefully and enjoy every minute of it.
Junior schoolboy. Characteristic
Younger school age, in contrast to preschool age, is characterized by the fact that it has a leading type of activity – teaching. In the process of learning, a child develops memory, pushes the boundaries of knowledge about the phenomena of the external world, and develops the ability to interact with people of different ages. Neoplasms of primary school age are the arbitrariness of mental phenomena, an internal plan of action and reflection.
Arbitrariness– The special quality of mental processes. In a child, it manifests itself primarily in the ability to consciously set goals for activities and achieve them, which distinguishes him from a preschooler. The child learns to choose the right goals of the activity not according to their external attractiveness, but based on necessity. In this way, he learns to control his behavior. It must be remembered that the management and achievement of goals is purely individual and depends on many factors. In one child, this can already be observed at the age of 6–7 years, and in another only at 9. When performing various tasks, children of primary school age already know how to find the most optimal solution. They choose the right solution, analyze and compare the results, plan the procedure for the work. The more and more thoroughly the child’s plans, the more successful will be the result of his activities. The need for such actions, as well as the development of mechanisms such as control and self-control in activities, create the prerequisites for the implementation of actions according to the internal plan. A very important requirement in educational activities is the requirement for the child to be able to present their decisions in a detailed and reasonable manner. To do this, the child learns from the side to consider, analyze and evaluate their own activities.
The ability to perform such operations underlie such a quality as reflection. The mechanism for changing periods Elkonin considered the changes that occur between the level of development of the child’s relationship with the outside world and the level of development of knowledge and methods of action. But we must not forget about the crisis periods that characterize this age. In a younger schoolboy, the game as a kind of activity “competes” with learning in some way. This can explain a lot of behavior in the lessons of first graders. They continue to play, bringing their favorite toys to school, which they are not able to part with for such a long time. And the main task of the teacher is to form positive learning motives. The teacher through the game brings the child to the leading activity for this age – learning.
Contacting with primary school age, we must not forget about the features of their physiology. It is at this age that qualitative and structural changes in the brain of the child occur. The cerebral hemispheres are especially strongly developed. The brain reaches a weight of 1 kg 350 g. Also, changes occur in the nervous processes – excitation and inhibition. A preschooler is characterized by situational behavior, and the process of inhibition is poorly developed. The younger student begins to master the processes of controlling his behavior, he increases the possibility of inhibitory reactions. This gives him the opportunity to obey the requirements of adults, restrain impulsive actions, increases his independence. Changes in this age period apply to the musculoskeletal system. It’s quite flexible for younger students, due to the large amount of cartilage in the bones and increased cell elasticity. Therefore, the scourge of a younger student is a curvature of the spine – scoliosis. If you do not monitor the posture of the child, this can lead to various diseases. Such a banal thing as physical education classes can largely prevent these phenomena, if due attention is paid to this subject. In a younger student, the small muscles of the hands, arms and fingers are poorly developed. Therefore, it is difficult for him to write in the initial stages of training. In a younger student, the small muscles of the hands, arms and fingers are poorly developed. Therefore, it is difficult for him to write in the initial stages of training. In a younger student, the small muscles of the hands, arms and fingers are poorly developed. Therefore, it is difficult for him to write in the initial stages of training.
For cognitive processes in younger students, we can include perception, attention, memory, imagination and thinking.
Perception– cognitive mental process, consisting in a holistic reflection of objects, events, situations. This phenomenon underlies the knowledge of the world. The basis of knowledge of the younger student is the direct perception of the world. For educational activities, all types of perception are important: the forms of objects, time, space. Perception is associated with individual manifestations of a person. There are people who do not attach importance to details, they are more occupied with a holistic phenomenon, while others, on the contrary, are focused on details. Such features can be found in the nature of the information received. If we look at the reflection of the information received, we can distinguish two types of perception: descriptive and explanatory. In some children, the descriptive type is oriented toward factual material. Such a child can retell the text close to the original, but he won’t really delve into the meaning. The explanatory type, on the contrary, in search of the meaning of the work may not remember its essence. Individual characteristics inherent in personality also affect perception. Some children are focused on the accuracy of perception, they do not turn to guesses, do not try to think over what they read or heard. The other individual type, on the contrary, seeks to speculate information, to fill it with its biased individual opinion. The perception of a younger student is involuntary. Children come to school with a sufficiently developed perception. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects. in search of the meaning of the work may not remember its essence. Individual characteristics inherent in personality also affect perception. Some children are focused on the accuracy of perception, they do not turn to guesses, do not try to think over what they read or heard. The other individual type, on the contrary, seeks to speculate information, to fill it with its biased individual opinion. The perception of a younger student is involuntary. Children come to school with a sufficiently developed perception. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects. in search of the meaning of the work may not remember its essence. Individual characteristics inherent in personality also affect perception. Some children are focused on the accuracy of perception, they do not turn to guesses, do not try to think over what they read or heard. The other individual type, on the contrary, seeks to speculate information, to fill it with its biased individual opinion. The perception of a younger student is involuntary. Children come to school with a sufficiently developed perception. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects. they don’t turn to guesses, they don’t try to think up what they read or heard. The other individual type, on the contrary, seeks to speculate information, to fill it with its biased individual opinion. The perception of a younger student is involuntary. Children come to school with a sufficiently developed perception. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects. they don’t turn to guesses, they don’t try to think up what they read or heard. The other individual type, on the contrary, seeks to speculate information, to fill it with its biased individual opinion. The perception of a younger student is involuntary. Children come to school with a sufficiently developed perception. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects.
Thinking. At a primary school age, the child’s thinking moves from visual-figurative to verbal-logical. It relies on visual images and representations. The mental activity of younger schoolchildren is still much like the thinking of preschoolers. To understand this cognitive process, you need to understand the features of the development of mental operations in younger students. They include components such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization, and specification.
Analysis– mental dismemberment of an object into separate parts and the allocation of properties, qualities or traits in it. A younger schoolboy is dominated by an almost effective and sensual analysis. Let’s try to figure out what it is. It is easier for children to solve problems using specific objects (sticks, models of objects, cubes, etc.) or to find parts of objects by observing them clearly. This can be both a model of the subject, and the natural conditions in which the subject is. Children of this age have a certain “one-sided” analysis. That is, they analyze parts of an object or individual properties. Growing up, the younger schoolchildren are already beginning to comprehensively analyze the phenomena. They consider not only individual parts of the analyzed subject, but are already trying to establish connections. Further, children, already gaining experience in analysis,
The development of analysis in younger students occurs simultaneously with the development of another component – synthesis.
Synthesis – the ability to logically build a mental chain from simple to complex. Analysis and synthesis are closely interconnected and interdependent. The more deeply the child has analysis, the more complete the synthesis. Teachers at school, engaged in the development of the child’s speech, are constantly met with the complex development of these components. If we show the child a plot picture and do not say its name, the description of this picture will look like a simple listing of painted objects. Message title picture improves the quality of analysis, helps the child understand the meaning of the whole picture.
Comparison. Everyone knows the tasks for comparing pictures presented in the periodicals Panorama, Televiewer, and other similar publications. It is also known that they are useful for the development of such a component of thinking as comparison. This is a comparison of objects or phenomena in order to find in them a common or different. Younger schoolchildren compare objects according to vivid signs, by what is striking. This can be a round shape of the object or its bright color. By comparing objects, some children succeed in isolating the greatest number of signs, and others the smallest. This operation is individually developed in each child. In the psychological and pedagogical literature there is an opinion that it is easier for younger schoolchildren to find differences, rather than similarities of objects. In practice, the younger schoolchild often substitutes comparison with another operation – the juxtaposition of objects. It is easier for him to tell in order what he knows about the subjects offered to him.
Generalization. Younger schoolchildren distinguish above all the catchy, vivid signs of objects. Most generalizations relate to specific features. If we give children in the form of a task a series of objects that belong to different groups and propose combining them according to common features, we will see that it is difficult for a younger student to generalize independently. Without the help of an adult, while completing a task, he can combine words of different meanings into one group. Using leading questions, it is necessary to show the child how to generalize correctly. Generalization is more successful when its meaning is more specific. Generalizations are fixed in concepts. Concepts are a combination of essential properties and attributes of an object or phenomenon.
Concretization . This component of thinking is closely linked to generalization. Throughout life, a child needs to learn to assimilate concepts, rules, laws. This can be done by examining individual objects or their parts, signs, schemes, and most importantly, by performing a number of operations with them. If the child knows only a part of the general properties, then his concretization will also be partial. Therefore, adults, preoccupied with the development of thinking in a younger schoolchild, lead him to the highest stage of concretization, when the child understands the meaning of the task proposed to him and knows how to concretize with new facts taken from his life experience.
Imagination.This is the ability of a person to create new images, relying on what he already has in experience. The main direction in the development of the imagination of a younger schoolboy is a transition to a more correct and complete reflection of reality on the basis of existing life experience and knowledge gained in the development of reality. Imagination is an extremely important process. With his help, a person can transform both his personality and the world around him. For primary school age, it is characteristic at the beginning that recreated samples only approximately characterize a real object, they are poor in details. How many of us have not heard how younger schoolchildren convey the content of the film, especially if it is a fairy tale or fantasy. They lack words and “colors.” The images that children talk about are basically static. Further imagination develops, and the children already,
A feature of the imagination of younger students is its reliance on specific subjects. Gradually, concrete examples are replaced by a word that helps the child create new images. By how deliberate, meaningful the creation of images is, we can divide the imagination into voluntary and involuntary. It is in primary school age that spontaneity is most pronounced. It is difficult for children to distract from images created by them earlier and due to their life experience. This makes it difficult to create new images. New images in younger students arise under the influence of little conscious needs.
The involuntary imagination is akin to uncontrollability. If some kind of literary work or a colorful story awakens a child’s strong imagination, then, retelling what he has heard or read, he, against his will, can come up with those details that were not in the work. Adults, often not understanding the nature of involuntary imagination, blame the child for lying.
Arbitrary imagination is an image specially created in accordance with the goals set. It needs to be developed, and adults will have to develop the imagination of the younger schoolchild from an image of an obscure, vague, “small”, in which only a few signs are reflected, to a generalized, bright image. The development of imagination as a cognitive process of the personality of a younger schoolboy is great. In the process of training and education, the child learns to manage his mental activity, and with the advent of these skills, the imagination also becomes a controlled life experience.
And finally, let ‘s talk about attention. It is not in itself a cognitive process, but it is inherent in all of the above processes: perception, thinking, memory. Attention is a focus on a process or phenomenon. It accompanies all mental processes and is a necessary condition for the implementation of almost any activity. Modern research shows that this process is extremely important for psychology and pedagogy. This importance is due to the fact that adults are concerned about the lack or weak expression of attention in their children. As a result of this, both theorists and practitioners working with children pay great attention to, recognizing in it almost the main ability for an individual’s creative life. Attention can be arbitrary and involuntary. In a primary school student, the predominant type of attention is involuntary attention.
Involuntary attention enough “independently” and does not depend on the efforts made. Objects and phenomena that attract attention can be different. But all are united by brightness, surprise, novelty. Younger students have not yet learned how to control their attention, and everything emotionally colored attracts them the most. This is due to the visual-figurative nature of their mental activity. Strong emotional experiences have an inhibitory effect on mental activity, and the younger student can not concentrate on obscure and incomprehensible material for him. For example, if a child was sick and missed new material when he came to school, he will not understand the teacher’s explanations, as they are based on the assimilation of the previous material. The child will be distracted, do other things. For him, the teacher’s explanations are unclear and incomprehensible.
Arbitrary attention.If a child sets a goal and makes efforts to achieve it, we are dealing with arbitrary attention. We already said earlier that the main activity of a primary school student is educational activity. It is in the process of mastering knowledge, skills and abilities that a child develops voluntary attention. The development of voluntary attention is closely related to the formation of such qualities as responsibility and independence in a child. The work on the development of voluntary attention goes from the goals that adults set for the child, to the goals that the younger student sets already independently. The organization of learning activities greatly affects the development of voluntary attention. Therefore, the requirements for the school in this part are great. It depends on the teacher to what extent the child accepts the learning objectives, how interesting they are to him and in tune with his life attitudes. If the teacher manages to develop interest in the final result of the activity, then this significantly increases the child’s attention, including the course of the activity. Considering arbitrary attention, we cannot but consider its properties. These include concentration of attention, its volume, stability, distribution and switching.
Concentration of attention – the ability to hold attention on one particular object. It is at a primary school age that this property can be expressed very clearly, since it is common for a child to plunge into his own world without noticing the real world for some time.
The volume of attention is the number of objects, phenomena that are simultaneously covered. In a primary school student, the volume ranges from 2 to 4 subjects. This is less than an adult, but enough for a child.
Stability of attention is still poorly developed in a primary school student. He is easily distracted, “jumps” from one object to another. This is facilitated by the fact that in a younger student, excitation processes prevail over inhibition processes. The child can not pay attention to one subject for a long time, he quickly gets tired.
Distribution of attention is the ability to maintain attention on two or more objects or phenomena. In a younger schoolchild, this property is not yet sufficiently developed. With age, the distribution develops, the experience of automatic skills appears, when one well-known phenomenon or activity requires almost automatic skill, and the child’s attention switches to another object or phenomenon.
And finally, such a property as switching attention. This is the child’s ability to move from one action to another. The success of the switch is influenced by the characteristics of previous activities and the individual characteristics of the child. Some children easily move from one type of activity to another, it’s hard, it’s difficult for them to rebuild. Switching attention requires efforts on the part of the child, therefore, in primary school age, when the volitional potential is still not sufficiently developed, it is difficult. But with age, with the acquisition of new experience, switching also develops. A large role in the development of attention belongs to the teacher, parent, educator, any adult involved in the development of cognitive processes of the child.
We introduced you to the basic characteristics of cognitive processes inherent in primary school age. We hope that the data obtained will help parents to adequately respond to the successes and failures that await a child in first grade. We think that they will be more understandable both the behavior of the child and his attitude to school life. The family has a difficult job, which consists in helping their baby in a difficult period of adaptation to a new life.
Tips of an experienced teacher for parents
To parent notebook
❀ Do not spend a lot of effort on finding a prestigious school. For elementary school, the trump card is a good teacher.
❀ Never be angry with a child if he does not remember verses or fairy tales. He still has insufficiently developed memory.
❀ Do exercises together to develop thinking, attention, memory, imagination.
❀ Strive to constantly increase the volume of your psychological and pedagogical knowledge.
❀ If the child attends preparatory courses, try to work out with him a little at home, of course, if the child has a desire to do this.
Note to grandparents
❀ Learn rhythmic quatrains with your child – this greatly develops memory.
❀ Gather your child’s friends and try to prepare them for school with them as a game.
❀ Tell your child what happened in your soul when you went to first grade.
❀ Give an example of his parents when they were first graders.
❀ Build confidence in the child that he will succeed at school.
Both the physical and mental development of the child goes through a series of stages. Periods of growth are replaced by periods of development. And these periods themselves are uneven and unequal in content. They can be represented as a series of waves of activation.
In some moments, we are surprised how quickly the child has grown, in others – we are in mourning, why is it not growing. But this is a natural phenomenon. After the growth and formation of new structures, new relations between these structures should be established, and new mechanisms for managing them must mature. And it is difficult to say which of the periods is more important for the child, one thing is clear: each of the age stages requires appropriate conditions so that all the hereditary prerequisites for growth and development have the opportunity to be realized.
There are many examples of how it was difficult to make up for lost time for the development of any individual abilities. And on the contrary, improper attitudes of behavior and bad habits formed at a good time for this development were subsequently difficult to eradicate.
Each stage of development of a child is characterized by its own susceptibility to various forms of pedagogical influence. This means that both the forms and methods of work to educate safe behavior skills must correspond to age periods.
In the process of child development, there are time intervals that are especially distinguished. They are called critical (or crisis) periods. Certain critical moments in the development of man arise at all, but the time of their onset may vary somewhat for different people within one year and three years (in girls, to a greater extent). This is due to individual differences due to heredity, ecology, conditions of care and upbringing of the child.
For younger students, the critical periods are 6-7 years old and 10-11 years old. Both of these ages fall during elementary school.
Six- and seven-year-olds stand out as critical, not only because the child goes to school. Really cardinal changes in physical and mental development take place in the child’s body at this time. The figure changes, milk teeth change to permanent, arms, legs are lengthened, thinking, attention, emotional sphere of the child’s personality are transferred to a new level.
So, the mechanisms of perception and attention of a 5- and 7-year-old child are significantly different. The perception of preschoolers directly, attention is involuntary. They perceive surrounding objects that are in close proximity. Therefore, the preschooler is poorly oriented in the road environment. The attention of a small child is easily distracted by objects that carry emotional stress.
At 7 years old, the role of emotional perception persists. If we want to draw the child’s attention to road signs, posters, games, we must make them bright, able to revive the child’s imaginative thinking, in addition, 7-year-old children have absolute color sensitivity. It is interesting to note that in subsequent years this sensitivity decreases (from 100% to 55% by 12 years). At the same time, the so-called distinctive sensitivity to shades of colors improves with age, which is caused by the connection of a number of mental functions to the analysis of color sensations.
A progressive feature of 7 years of age is the ability to self-organize, to manifest independence in thoughts, in actions. The presence of these abilities plays an important role when a child crosses the roadway.
Due to the improvement of the functions of the cerebral cortex in children, there is selectivity of attention, the ability to differentially perceive incoming information. Despite the undoubted significance for the effective perception of just emotional stimuli, the 7-year-old child has access to the perception and more abstract properties of objects. In addition, increased susceptibility to the word. The child can be instilled the necessary rules of behavior on the street, set up to comply with traffic rules.
However, it also happens that, requiring the child to comply with certain rules of behavior, we do not achieve the goal. This is because the child cannot properly absorb verbal or so-called verbal information due to the individual characteristics of perception and the cognitive process. Some children follow age-related patterns in development, and their ability to perceive visual, motor, and auditory information is uniformly formed. In other children, the leading model, or perception system, for example, the visual one, stands out. In this case, the child better assimilates the information received through visual perception. But on the other hand, the channel for receiving information through touch, movement can be turned off; he does not have a sense of the body, movements are awkward. Or, sometimes, the child perceives the information well by ear, listens carefully to the teacher, grabs on the fly, and at home it is difficult to get him to take up the textbook. But he will be happy to listen if someone volunteers to read. So, in this case, the leading is the auditory model. If motor perception is leading, then it is difficult for a child to delve into instructions, rules, and other abstract information. He perceives only those words that easily come to life in his images. In order to comprehend, the child must touch, feel, emotionally and motorly experience the sensations associated with this verbal information. The standard approach in this case causes the child’s self-determination, such a school student easily falls into the category of difficult to educate. in this case, the auditory model is leading. If motor perception is leading, then it is difficult for a child to delve into instructions, rules, and other abstract information. He perceives only those words that easily come to life in his images. In order to comprehend, the child must touch, feel, emotionally and motorly experience the sensations associated with this verbal information. The standard approach in this case causes the child’s self-determination, such a school student easily falls into the category of difficult to educate. in this case, the auditory model is leading. If motor perception is leading, then it is difficult for a child to delve into instructions, rules, and other abstract information. He perceives only those words that easily come to life in his images. In order to comprehend, the child must touch, feel, emotionally and motorly experience the sensations associated with this verbal information. The standard approach in this case causes the child’s self-determination, such a school student easily falls into the category of difficult to educate. emotionally and motorly relive the sensations associated with this verbal information. The standard approach in this case causes the child’s self-determination, such a school student easily falls into the category of difficult to educate. emotionally and motorly relive the sensations associated with this verbal information. The standard approach in this case causes the child’s self-determination, such a school student easily falls into the category of difficult to educate.
If the child has an acute visual or auditory susceptibility, and his muscle is weak, he will be well oriented in a calm environment; in the case of a sharp change, it may lose balance, fall or freeze in place as paralyzed. With poor visual perception, it is difficult for the child to navigate in a calm situation. Parents should know the peculiarities of their child’s perception and not leave him on the road without control on their part. At the same time, knowing these features, they can be rationally used for the development of the child. So, when mastering new knowledge and skills, when making contact with a child, one should rely on a leading model and at the same time try to increase the perception of other channels through physical exercises, games, walking, reading, drawing.
Given all of the above, it should be concluded that when working with children, it is necessary to diversify techniques, forms, methods as much as possible. In the classroom, you should use the teacher’s story, and the table, and layouts, and toy cars, and the stories of the students themselves, only in this case it can be assumed that the necessary information reached all children (children of all types of perception of information).
In order to navigate the road, to notice objects important for safety, the child must be careful. Unfortunately, the attention of a 7-year-old child is unstable, he is easily distracted. This is due to the fact that many body functions are in the infancy stage.
In response to a sound or light signal, 7-year-olds respond rather slowly. Compared with older children, the process of processing information in the central nervous system takes longer. Sharp signals or an unexpected appearance of the machine cause confusion, a spontaneous emotional motor reaction that is not analyzed, and, therefore, the choice of the optimal direction of movement is not made. The child easily loses self-control. Having noticed the source of danger, the child still cannot immediately figure out how far the car is from him and how quickly it will approach. He perceives a danger signal as a signal for action: to escape faster. But concentrating on the danger object, the child may not notice another machine, for which he himself may become a source of danger.
In addition, children of this age often and easily fall. This is due to the imperfection of physiological mechanisms that ensure the balance of the body or its restoration. Resistance to falling develops up to 12-14 years.
At the age of 7 to 10 years, the period of development of the ability to form a spatial movement program falls. This will give the student a much greater opportunity to control his body and organize behavior appropriate to the situation. Therefore, a large number of games, other exercises and activities are needed that would develop coordination and give greater freedom of ownership of your body.
However, in a 7-year-old child, coordination and accuracy of actions is ensured only through visual control. He is not able at this age to abstractly program actions without believing them in a court of vision.
Perhaps the whole point is that a significant role in this phenomenon is played by visual perception. The world of emotions is well fed by information received from the senses. And since the child receives the lion’s share of information, the most attractive and colorful, from the organs of vision, then visually controlled actions become significant for him. In this regard, the object becomes for him as if guiding. If something interests the child (a kite in the sky, a bird on the side of the road or a motorcycle, a kiosk, etc.), then all the attention is absorbed by this object, and he acts in accordance with what he sees.
Thus, both attention and motor reaction of a child are largely determined by the level of development of central regulatory mechanisms in him. A 7-year-old child has the prerequisites for organizing proper behavior on the road, but there are a number of features of the nervous system that limit the likelihood of just such behavior.
With fatigue, the functional state of many body systems decreases. After classes at school, younger students are less vigilant when crossing the carriageway than before school, during their time at school they have new impressions and worries, resulting in increased distraction and distraction.
Mobile, excitable children are more difficult to tolerate school activities that constrain their increased need for physical activity. Finding themselves out of school after school, they try to compensate for the lack of motor activity with sudden movements, jumps, and brawls. Moreover, their actions are impulsive, involuntary in nature.
When crossing a road, an adult accompanying a moving child needs to be vigilant so that the child doesn’t dart to the side for no reason, being distracted by a companion, dog or other thing that interests him.
The lack of discipline of an excitable child in this case is unintentional, and it is useless to blame him for disobedience. An adult will be more forward-looking if, right after school, before setting off on a road-way, the child will be allowed to bump with peers for about ten minutes, be discharged on a “cobweb”, “turtle” or other games.
In contrast to the mobile, slow-moving children are more disciplined. But in the event of an unforeseen situation, their reaction is more delayed.
There are children who need to be distinguished especially from the bulk of the students. Despite reaching the age of 7, they may lag behind in the development of voluntary attention, organization. One of the reasons may be the lack of formation of the neurophysiological mechanisms of higher nervous activity corresponding to this age. On the other hand, some children do not adapt well to the pace of school work.
From 5 to 20% of primary schoolchildren are not able to adapt to the conditions of study at school. As a result of this, their anxiety, distraction, and inability to arbitrarily regulate their behavior increase; these children need special attention from adults both when crossing the road and in school settings. It is necessary to find out the reasons leading to school maladjustment, and do everything possible to eliminate it. Such children must be met after graduation, not only during the period of study in the first grade, but also much longer.
A factor such as left-handedness should be taken into account. It was revealed that left-handed pedestrians are more often victims of various accidents and injuries, left-handed drivers are twice as likely to be victims of car accidents. Left-handed people give birth to 10% of people (on average). With age, this figure decreases due to the fact that the majority of left-handed people are retrained, as well as due to their shorter life expectancy (according to average statistics). At the same time, left-handed children are often distinguished by their outstanding abilities for art and mathematics.
The process of retraining lefthanders (especially the forcible transition from left to right handedness) is accompanied by significant adverse changes in the central nervous system and metabolic processes. It is possible that it is retraining left-handed people who are more often in a state that helps to reduce vigilance on the road, distraction, slow reaction, and a decrease in motor coordination abilities. It is almost impossible for a teacher to foresee in his work all the nuances of the behavior of such children on the road. He must be concerned about the possible consequences of the parents of these children, and then an accident with the child can be prevented.
A left-handed child lives in somewhat less comfortable conditions, because, firstly, he feels different from other peers, and secondly, all household tools, as a rule, are adapted for the right hand. A teacher should not retrain a left-hander into a right-hander. It is advisable to create such conditions under which the child would not feel flawed from his left-handedness, but used it to the same extent as right-handed right-handedness. However, this is impossible on the road, and therefore left-handed people should be more trained, disciplined, attentive.
Thus, at the age of 7, very important changes take place in the student’s body, allowing him to participate in road traffic at a new level (higher than that of a preschooler). However, at this age, orientation opportunities are limited.
Separate seven-year-olds themselves can cross the street. They should develop and maintain their independence in this regard, that is, it is necessary to implement a differentiated approach to children. It is necessary to take into account the individual characteristics of children, the degree of complexity and danger of the path. It is hardly possible to allow a 7-year-old child to cross the roadway alone if this child is either excitable, or inhibited, or physically weakened, or retrained by a left-handed person, or has deviations in health status, or developmental delay, or there is a problem of school adaptation. Unfortunately, most students of this age fall into at least one of these categories.
Granting independence to any seven-year-old child in overcoming the carriageway of the road can be allowed, firstly, only as an exception and, first of all, provided that the road is not very dangerous, and secondly, parents must be confident in the child, his organization, responsibility, discipline. In addition, parents must first make sure that their child is serious about the rules of the road and follows them diligently. At the same time, it is important not only to observe his behavior during joint transitions, but, letting him go alone, to trace this behavior. However, being an exceptional occurrence, such cases of giving independence to a first-grader should be known to the teacher, as well as the reasons prompting parents not to accompany the child on the way to school or home. General rule
The eight-year age is noteworthy in that it is removed from the crisis periods: 6-7 years and 10-11 years. The functional state of the body of these children is most stable and adaptive to environmental influences compared with younger and older schoolchildren.
It should also be noted the increase in the stability of attention of eight-year-olds. In 50% of cases, attention characteristics of a given age correspond to those in adults. This level of attention is very close to the level of attention of older children (from 8 to 15 years).
The period from 7 to 8 years is characterized by the most intensive development of the motor function and various analyzer systems that ensure the perception of external signals. Significant shifts are taking place in improving visual perception. The field of view is increasing: in comparison with a 6-year-old child, the boundaries of the field of view expand more than 10 times. As a rule, the expansion of the field of view with age occurs due to an increase in the outer boundary, which determines the possibility of viewing on the right and left. An 8-year-old child is characterized by an expansion of the field of view due to an increase in the upper boundaries. This is of no small importance for the orientation of children on road signs, cars, etc. Previously, due to their small stature and limited field of vision, not all road objects (falling into the field of vision of an adult) were equally accessible to them. By the age of 8, significant changes are taking place in this regard, contributing to improved orientation on the road. In addition, at this age, the eye becomes more accurate: 1/3 for a close distance and 1/10 for a long (10 m) distance (compared with the previous age). Therefore, eight years is the average lower age limit when a child can take the first, completely independent steps as a road user. He must be prepared for these steps. This shows the significance that a year of study in first grade acquires. This is the year of the maximum acquisition of knowledge and the formation of physiology. 1/3 for a short distance and 1/10 for a long (10 m) distance (compared with the previous age). Therefore, eight years is the average lower age limit when a child can take the first, completely independent steps as a road user. He must be prepared for these steps. This shows the significance that a year of study in first grade acquires. This is the year of the maximum acquisition of knowledge and the formation of physiology. 1/3 for a short distance and 1/10 for a long (10 m) distance (compared with the previous age). Therefore, eight years is the average lower age limit when a child can take the first, completely independent steps as a road user. He must be prepared for these steps. This shows the significance that a year of study in first grade acquires. This is the year of the maximum acquisition of knowledge and the formation of physiology.
At the same time, the function of the vestibular apparatus is being improved. The resistance of motor coordination to stimulation of the vestibular apparatus begins to manifest itself actively, starting from the age of 8. Consequently, from this age, children become more resistant to falling.
Thanks to the active development of brain functions, the perception of the shape of objects or image is improved. This gives an 8-year-old child more than a 7-year-old child more likely to notice the danger. To increase these chances, child training is so important.
Thus, by the age of 8 years, the level of development of visual, motor function, attention allows the child to navigate well on the road. However, in case of unexpected danger, the child is required to quickly analyze the situation and choose one of the options for response, speed in making decisions and responding to the situation. 8-year-old children do not yet possess these qualities properly. They will be formed later.
However, in this age period, children are very sensitive to the effects of targeted training of motor and mental functions. In this regard, close to him and 9 years of age. After 8 years of life, changes take place in the child’s body, which significantly affect his behavior on the road.
From the age of nine, the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex are actively involved in the management of analyzer systems. In the organization of behavior, the mechanism of central teams begins to operate. What does it mean? Due to the activation of the frontal lobes of the brain, responsible for the regulation of higher forms of human behavior, the ability to make decisions based on the analysis of various kinds of information appears: both specific, coming from the senses, and abstract, for example, from verbal instruction. This means that there comes a period when the child begins to actively contrast the authority of an adult with his own opinion. At the same time, the process of perception of visual, auditory and other information is being improved. From a number of simultaneously perceived signals, the student can identify the most important for this moment. Moreover, he has the ability to predict the possibility of an action. When crossing the road in a dangerous place, he can already calculate the probability of approaching the car. Thus, the child enters the age when, on the one hand, he can already make some decisions, on the other hand, constant monitoring by adults is required.
Cognition and mental processes include perception, imagination, thinking, memory and attention.
Let’s start with the characteristics of perception. What it is?
Perception is a sensual reflection of reality by every person. It is due to the device of the senses, sensory abilities of a person. If we perceive differences in the sensory organs of each child, respectively, the reflection of real objects will also be different. Each child masters the visual and auditory image of the subject individually. It depends on many reasons and, above all, on the child’s connection with the objective world. What specific images are included in his “area” of sensual reflection of the world.
Perception is closely related to thinking, since thinking– This is a set of mental processes that underlie cognition. Thinking is closely related to the functioning of the human brain, with its ability to handle the resulting abstractions of reflection of the real world.
With the help of perception, the child reflects reality, and thinking as a type of mental activity helps him to identify the connections between the phenomena of the world. The identification of relationships “forces” the child to make judgments, to analyze new objects and phenomena seen.
Talking about them, the child synthesizes the knowledge gained. The combination of these processes is carried out in a familiar figurative and symbolic form, which in turn is reflected in the products of the child’s activities. With what mechanism does the child accumulate the knowledge gained? He does this with the help of memory.
That memory as a type of mental activity, it is called upon to accumulate, preserve and reproduce information received by a person in the course of life.
There are various types of memory. Their selection depends on the criteria. For example, in psychological literature, the following criteria are distinguished: purpose, content, sensory modality, organization of memorization, time for memorization.
By goal setting, random and involuntary memory is allocated. By the content such types of memory are distinguished as: figurative, verbal-logical, motor, emotional. By organizing the storage of information, one can distinguish episodic memory, semantic and procedural.
According to time characteristics, memory is divided into the following types: long-term and short-term. If we talk about the amount of information, it should be noted that memory has a limited amount of it.
Both thinking and memory determine the individual ability of the child to build more and more new images, “inconspicuous” reality. In this he helps such a cognitive feature as imagination .
For a child, it is characteristic at first that recreated samples only approximately characterize a real object, they are poor in details. Further, the imagination develops and the children, building images, use a much larger number of signs and properties in them. Gradually, concrete examples are replaced by a word that helps the child create new images. According to how deliberate, meaningful the creation of images is, we can divide the imagination into such types as voluntary and involuntary.
The main direction in the development of the imagination of a younger schoolboy is a transition to a more correct and complete reflection of reality on the basis of existing life experience and knowledge gained in the development of reality.
And finally, let’s talk about attention . Attention in itself is not an cognitive process. It is inherent in all of the above processes: perception, thinking, memory.
Attention is a focus on a process or phenomenon. It accompanies all mental processes and is a necessary condition for the implementation of almost any activity. Attention can be arbitrary and involuntary. From birth, attention goes through several stages of development in the direction from involuntary to arbitrary.
The child’s attention is directed in two ways: objects and phenomena that surround the child, on the one hand, and on the other, with the words that designate these objects. With age, the child, mastering the speech, begins to learn to focus on a specific matter, along with him develops his attention.