Characteristics of a primary school child

Written by Alisa

Junior schoolboy. Characteristic

Younger school age, in contrast to preschool age, is characterized by the fact that it has a leading type of activity – teaching. In the process of learning, a child develops memory, pushes the boundaries of knowledge about the phenomena of the external world, and develops the ability to interact with people of different ages. Neoplasms of primary school age are the arbitrariness of mental phenomena, an internal plan of action and reflection.

Arbitrariness– The special quality of mental processes. In a child, it manifests itself primarily in the ability to consciously set goals for activities and achieve them, which distinguishes him from a preschooler. The child learns to choose the right goals of the activity not according to their external attractiveness, but based on necessity. In this way, he learns to control his behavior. It must be remembered that the management and achievement of goals is purely individual and depends on many factors. In one child, this can already be observed at the age of 6–7 years, and in another only at 9. When performing various tasks, children of primary school age already know how to find the most optimal solution. They choose the right solution, analyze and compare the results, plan the procedure for the work. The more and more thoroughly the child’s plans, the more successful will be the result of his activities. The need for such actions, as well as the development of mechanisms such as control and self-control in activities, create the prerequisites for the implementation of actions according to the internal plan. A very important requirement in educational activities is the requirement for the child to be able to present their decisions in a detailed and reasonable manner. To do this, the child learns from the side to consider, analyze and evaluate their own activities.

The ability to perform such operations underlie such a quality as reflection. The mechanism for changing periods Elkonin considered the changes that occur between the level of development of the child’s relationship with the outside world and the level of development of knowledge and methods of action. But we must not forget about the crisis periods that characterize this age. In a younger schoolboy, the game as a kind of activity “competes” with learning in some way. This can explain a lot of behavior in the lessons of first graders. They continue to play, bringing their favorite toys to school, which they are not able to part with for such a long time. And the main task of the teacher is to form positive learning motives. The teacher through the game brings the child to the leading activity for this age – learning.

Contacting with primary school age, we must not forget about the features of their physiology. It is at this age that qualitative and structural changes in the brain of the child occur. The cerebral hemispheres are especially strongly developed. The brain reaches a weight of 1 kg 350 g. Also, changes occur in the nervous processes – excitation and inhibition. A preschooler is characterized by situational behavior, and the process of inhibition is poorly developed. The younger student begins to master the processes of controlling his behavior, he increases the possibility of inhibitory reactions. This gives him the opportunity to obey the requirements of adults, restrain impulsive actions, increases his independence. Changes in this age period apply to the musculoskeletal system. It’s quite flexible for younger students, due to the large amount of cartilage in the bones and increased cell elasticity. Therefore, the scourge of a younger student is a curvature of the spine – scoliosis. If you do not monitor the posture of the child, this can lead to various diseases. Such a banal thing as physical education classes can largely prevent these phenomena, if due attention is paid to this subject. In a younger student, the small muscles of the hands, arms and fingers are poorly developed. Therefore, it is difficult for him to write in the initial stages of training. In a younger student, the small muscles of the hands, arms and fingers are poorly developed. Therefore, it is difficult for him to write in the initial stages of training. In a younger student, the small muscles of the hands, arms and fingers are poorly developed. Therefore, it is difficult for him to write in the initial stages of training.

For cognitive processes in younger students, we can include perception, attention, memory, imagination and thinking.

Perception– cognitive mental process, consisting in a holistic reflection of objects, events, situations. This phenomenon underlies the knowledge of the world. The basis of knowledge of the younger student is the direct perception of the world. For educational activities, all types of perception are important: the forms of objects, time, space. Perception is associated with individual manifestations of a person. There are people who do not attach importance to details, they are more occupied with a holistic phenomenon, while others, on the contrary, are focused on details. Such features can be found in the nature of the information received. If we look at the reflection of the information received, we can distinguish two types of perception: descriptive and explanatory. In some children, the descriptive type is oriented toward factual material. Such a child can retell the text close to the original, but he won’t really delve into the meaning. The explanatory type, on the contrary, in search of the meaning of the work may not remember its essence. Individual characteristics inherent in personality also affect perception. Some children are focused on the accuracy of perception, they do not turn to guesses, do not try to think over what they read or heard. The other individual type, on the contrary, seeks to speculate information, to fill it with its biased individual opinion. The perception of a younger student is involuntary. Children come to school with a sufficiently developed perception. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects. in search of the meaning of the work may not remember its essence. Individual characteristics inherent in personality also affect perception. Some children are focused on the accuracy of perception, they do not turn to guesses, do not try to think over what they read or heard. The other individual type, on the contrary, seeks to speculate information, to fill it with its biased individual opinion. The perception of a younger student is involuntary. Children come to school with a sufficiently developed perception. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects. in search of the meaning of the work may not remember its essence. Individual characteristics inherent in personality also affect perception. Some children are focused on the accuracy of perception, they do not turn to guesses, do not try to think over what they read or heard. The other individual type, on the contrary, seeks to speculate information, to fill it with its biased individual opinion. The perception of a younger student is involuntary. Children come to school with a sufficiently developed perception. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects. they don’t turn to guesses, they don’t try to think up what they read or heard. The other individual type, on the contrary, seeks to speculate information, to fill it with its biased individual opinion. The perception of a younger student is involuntary. Children come to school with a sufficiently developed perception. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects. they don’t turn to guesses, they don’t try to think up what they read or heard. The other individual type, on the contrary, seeks to speculate information, to fill it with its biased individual opinion. The perception of a younger student is involuntary. Children come to school with a sufficiently developed perception. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects. But this perception comes down to recognizing the form and color of the presented objects. At the same time, in the subject the children see not the main thing, the special, but the bright, that is, that which stands out from other objects.

Thinking. At a primary school age, the child’s thinking moves from visual-figurative to verbal-logical. It relies on visual images and representations. The mental activity of younger schoolchildren is still much like the thinking of preschoolers. To understand this cognitive process, you need to understand the features of the development of mental operations in younger students. They include components such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization, and specification.

Analysis– mental dismemberment of an object into separate parts and the allocation of properties, qualities or traits in it. A younger schoolboy is dominated by an almost effective and sensual analysis. Let’s try to figure out what it is. It is easier for children to solve problems using specific objects (sticks, models of objects, cubes, etc.) or to find parts of objects by observing them clearly. This can be both a model of the subject, and the natural conditions in which the subject is. Children of this age have a certain “one-sided” analysis. That is, they analyze parts of an object or individual properties. Growing up, the younger schoolchildren are already beginning to comprehensively analyze the phenomena. They consider not only individual parts of the analyzed subject, but are already trying to establish connections. Further, children, already gaining experience in analysis,

The development of analysis in younger students occurs simultaneously with the development of another component – synthesis.

Synthesis – the ability to logically build a mental chain from simple to complex. Analysis and synthesis are closely interconnected and interdependent. The more deeply the child has analysis, the more complete the synthesis. Teachers at school, engaged in the development of the child’s speech, are constantly met with the complex development of these components. If we show the child a plot picture and do not say its name, the description of this picture will look like a simple listing of painted objects. Message title picture improves the quality of analysis, helps the child understand the meaning of the whole picture.

Comparison. Everyone knows the tasks for comparing pictures presented in the periodicals Panorama, Televiewer, and other similar publications. It is also known that they are useful for the development of such a component of thinking as comparison. This is a comparison of objects or phenomena in order to find in them a common or different. Younger schoolchildren compare objects according to vivid signs, by what is striking. This can be a round shape of the object or its bright color. By comparing objects, some children succeed in isolating the greatest number of signs, and others the smallest. This operation is individually developed in each child. In the psychological and pedagogical literature there is an opinion that it is easier for younger schoolchildren to find differences, rather than similarities of objects. In practice, the younger schoolchild often substitutes comparison with another operation – the juxtaposition of objects. It is easier for him to tell in order what he knows about the subjects offered to him.

Generalization. Younger schoolchildren distinguish above all the catchy, vivid signs of objects. Most generalizations relate to specific features. If we give children in the form of a task a series of objects that belong to different groups and propose combining them according to common features, we will see that it is difficult for a younger student to generalize independently. Without the help of an adult, while completing a task, he can combine words of different meanings into one group. Using leading questions, it is necessary to show the child how to generalize correctly. Generalization is more successful when its meaning is more specific. Generalizations are fixed in concepts. Concepts are a combination of essential properties and attributes of an object or phenomenon.

Concretization . This component of thinking is closely linked to generalization. Throughout life, a child needs to learn to assimilate concepts, rules, laws. This can be done by examining individual objects or their parts, signs, schemes, and most importantly, by performing a number of operations with them. If the child knows only a part of the general properties, then his concretization will also be partial. Therefore, adults, preoccupied with the development of thinking in a younger schoolchild, lead him to the highest stage of concretization, when the child understands the meaning of the task proposed to him and knows how to concretize with new facts taken from his life experience.

Imagination.This is the ability of a person to create new images, relying on what he already has in experience. The main direction in the development of the imagination of a younger schoolboy is a transition to a more correct and complete reflection of reality on the basis of existing life experience and knowledge gained in the development of reality. Imagination is an extremely important process. With his help, a person can transform both his personality and the world around him. For primary school age, it is characteristic at the beginning that recreated samples only approximately characterize a real object, they are poor in details. How many of us have not heard how younger schoolchildren convey the content of the film, especially if it is a fairy tale or fantasy. They lack words and “colors.” The images that children talk about are basically static. Further imagination develops, and the children already,

A feature of the imagination of younger students is its reliance on specific subjects. Gradually, concrete examples are replaced by a word that helps the child create new images. By how deliberate, meaningful the creation of images is, we can divide the imagination into voluntary and involuntary. It is in primary school age that spontaneity is most pronounced. It is difficult for children to distract from images created by them earlier and due to their life experience. This makes it difficult to create new images. New images in younger students arise under the influence of little conscious needs.

The involuntary imagination is akin to uncontrollability. If some kind of literary work or a colorful story awakens a child’s strong imagination, then, retelling what he has heard or read, he, against his will, can come up with those details that were not in the work. Adults, often not understanding the nature of involuntary imagination, blame the child for lying.

Arbitrary imagination is an image specially created in accordance with the goals set. It needs to be developed, and adults will have to develop the imagination of the younger schoolchild from an image of an obscure, vague, “small”, in which only a few signs are reflected, to a generalized, bright image. The development of imagination as a cognitive process of the personality of a younger schoolboy is great. In the process of training and education, the child learns to manage his mental activity, and with the advent of these skills, the imagination also becomes a controlled life experience.

And finally, let ‘s talk about attention. It is not in itself a cognitive process, but it is inherent in all of the above processes: perception, thinking, memory. Attention is a focus on a process or phenomenon. It accompanies all mental processes and is a necessary condition for the implementation of almost any activity. Modern research shows that this process is extremely important for psychology and pedagogy. This importance is due to the fact that adults are concerned about the lack or weak expression of attention in their children. As a result of this, both theorists and practitioners working with children pay great attention to, recognizing in it almost the main ability for an individual’s creative life. Attention can be arbitrary and involuntary. In a primary school student, the predominant type of attention is involuntary attention.

Involuntary attention enough “independently” and does not depend on the efforts made. Objects and phenomena that attract attention can be different. But all are united by brightness, surprise, novelty. Younger students have not yet learned how to control their attention, and everything emotionally colored attracts them the most. This is due to the visual-figurative nature of their mental activity. Strong emotional experiences have an inhibitory effect on mental activity, and the younger student can not concentrate on obscure and incomprehensible material for him. For example, if a child was sick and missed new material when he came to school, he will not understand the teacher’s explanations, as they are based on the assimilation of the previous material. The child will be distracted, do other things. For him, the teacher’s explanations are unclear and incomprehensible.

Arbitrary attention.If a child sets a goal and makes efforts to achieve it, we are dealing with arbitrary attention. We already said earlier that the main activity of a primary school student is educational activity. It is in the process of mastering knowledge, skills and abilities that a child develops voluntary attention. The development of voluntary attention is closely related to the formation of such qualities as responsibility and independence in a child. The work on the development of voluntary attention goes from the goals that adults set for the child, to the goals that the younger student sets already independently. The organization of learning activities greatly affects the development of voluntary attention. Therefore, the requirements for the school in this part are great. It depends on the teacher to what extent the child accepts the learning objectives, how interesting they are to him and in tune with his life attitudes. If the teacher manages to develop interest in the final result of the activity, then this significantly increases the child’s attention, including the course of the activity. Considering arbitrary attention, we cannot but consider its properties. These include concentration of attention, its volume, stability, distribution and switching.

Concentration of attention – the ability to hold attention on one particular object. It is at a primary school age that this property can be expressed very clearly, since it is common for a child to plunge into his own world without noticing the real world for some time.

The volume of attention is the number of objects, phenomena that are simultaneously covered. In a primary school student, the volume ranges from 2 to 4 subjects. This is less than an adult, but enough for a child.

Stability of attention is still poorly developed in a primary school student. He is easily distracted, “jumps” from one object to another. This is facilitated by the fact that in a younger student, excitation processes prevail over inhibition processes. The child can not pay attention to one subject for a long time, he quickly gets tired.

Distribution of attention is the ability to maintain attention on two or more objects or phenomena. In a younger schoolchild, this property is not yet sufficiently developed. With age, the distribution develops, the experience of automatic skills appears, when one well-known phenomenon or activity requires almost automatic skill, and the child’s attention switches to another object or phenomenon.

And finally, such a property as switching attention. This is the child’s ability to move from one action to another. The success of the switch is influenced by the characteristics of previous activities and the individual characteristics of the child. Some children easily move from one type of activity to another, it’s hard, it’s difficult for them to rebuild. Switching attention requires efforts on the part of the child, therefore, in primary school age, when the volitional potential is still not sufficiently developed, it is difficult. But with age, with the acquisition of new experience, switching also develops. A large role in the development of attention belongs to the teacher, parent, educator, any adult involved in the development of cognitive processes of the child.

We introduced you to the basic characteristics of cognitive processes inherent in primary school age. We hope that the data obtained will help parents to adequately respond to the successes and failures that await a child in first grade. We think that they will be more understandable both the behavior of the child and his attitude to school life. The family has a difficult job, which consists in helping their baby in a difficult period of adaptation to a new life.

Tips of an experienced teacher for parents

To parent notebook

❀ Do not spend a lot of effort on finding a prestigious school. For elementary school, the trump card is a good teacher.

❀ Never be angry with a child if he does not remember verses or fairy tales. He still has insufficiently developed memory.

❀ Do exercises together to develop thinking, attention, memory, imagination.

❀ Strive to constantly increase the volume of your psychological and pedagogical knowledge.

❀ If the child attends preparatory courses, try to work out with him a little at home, of course, if the child has a desire to do this.

Note to grandparents

❀ Learn rhythmic quatrains with your child – this greatly develops memory.

❀ Gather your child’s friends and try to prepare them for school with them as a game.

❀ Tell your child what happened in your soul when you went to first grade.

❀ Give an example of his parents when they were first graders.

❀ Build confidence in the child that he will succeed at school.

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