Cognition and mental processes include perception, imagination, thinking, memory and attention.
Let’s start with the characteristics of perception. What it is?
Perception is a sensual reflection of reality by every person. It is due to the device of the senses, sensory abilities of a person. If we perceive differences in the sensory organs of each child, respectively, the reflection of real objects will also be different. Each child masters the visual and auditory image of the subject individually. It depends on many reasons and, above all, on the child’s connection with the objective world. What specific images are included in his “area” of sensual reflection of the world.
Perception is closely related to thinking, since thinking– This is a set of mental processes that underlie cognition. Thinking is closely related to the functioning of the human brain, with its ability to handle the resulting abstractions of reflection of the real world.
With the help of perception, the child reflects reality, and thinking as a type of mental activity helps him to identify the connections between the phenomena of the world. The identification of relationships “forces” the child to make judgments, to analyze new objects and phenomena seen.
Talking about them, the child synthesizes the knowledge gained. The combination of these processes is carried out in a familiar figurative and symbolic form, which in turn is reflected in the products of the child’s activities. With what mechanism does the child accumulate the knowledge gained? He does this with the help of memory.
That memory as a type of mental activity, it is called upon to accumulate, preserve and reproduce information received by a person in the course of life.
There are various types of memory. Their selection depends on the criteria. For example, in psychological literature, the following criteria are distinguished: purpose, content, sensory modality, organization of memorization, time for memorization.
By goal setting, random and involuntary memory is allocated. By the content such types of memory are distinguished as: figurative, verbal-logical, motor, emotional. By organizing the storage of information, one can distinguish episodic memory, semantic and procedural.
According to time characteristics, memory is divided into the following types: long-term and short-term. If we talk about the amount of information, it should be noted that memory has a limited amount of it.
Both thinking and memory determine the individual ability of the child to build more and more new images, “inconspicuous” reality. In this he helps such a cognitive feature as imagination .
For a child, it is characteristic at first that recreated samples only approximately characterize a real object, they are poor in details. Further, the imagination develops and the children, building images, use a much larger number of signs and properties in them. Gradually, concrete examples are replaced by a word that helps the child create new images. According to how deliberate, meaningful the creation of images is, we can divide the imagination into such types as voluntary and involuntary.
The main direction in the development of the imagination of a younger schoolboy is a transition to a more correct and complete reflection of reality on the basis of existing life experience and knowledge gained in the development of reality.
And finally, let’s talk about attention . Attention in itself is not an cognitive process. It is inherent in all of the above processes: perception, thinking, memory.
Attention is a focus on a process or phenomenon. It accompanies all mental processes and is a necessary condition for the implementation of almost any activity. Attention can be arbitrary and involuntary. From birth, attention goes through several stages of development in the direction from involuntary to arbitrary.
The child’s attention is directed in two ways: objects and phenomena that surround the child, on the one hand, and on the other, with the words that designate these objects. With age, the child, mastering the speech, begins to learn to focus on a specific matter, along with him develops his attention.