Both the physical and mental development of the child goes through a series of stages. Periods of growth are replaced by periods of development. And these periods themselves are uneven and unequal in content. They can be represented as a series of waves of activation.
In some moments, we are surprised how quickly the child has grown, in others – we are in mourning, why is it not growing. But this is a natural phenomenon. After the growth and formation of new structures, new relations between these structures should be established, and new mechanisms for managing them must mature. And it is difficult to say which of the periods is more important for the child, one thing is clear: each of the age stages requires appropriate conditions so that all the hereditary prerequisites for growth and development have the opportunity to be realized.
There are many examples of how it was difficult to make up for lost time for the development of any individual abilities. And on the contrary, improper attitudes of behavior and bad habits formed at a good time for this development were subsequently difficult to eradicate.
Each stage of development of a child is characterized by its own susceptibility to various forms of pedagogical influence. This means that both the forms and methods of work to educate safe behavior skills must correspond to age periods.
In the process of child development, there are time intervals that are especially distinguished. They are called critical (or crisis) periods. Certain critical moments in the development of man arise at all, but the time of their onset may vary somewhat for different people within one year and three years (in girls, to a greater extent). This is due to individual differences due to heredity, ecology, conditions of care and upbringing of the child.
For younger students, the critical periods are 6-7 years old and 10-11 years old. Both of these ages fall during elementary school.
Six- and seven-year-olds stand out as critical, not only because the child goes to school. Really cardinal changes in physical and mental development take place in the child’s body at this time. The figure changes, milk teeth change to permanent, arms, legs are lengthened, thinking, attention, emotional sphere of the child’s personality are transferred to a new level.
So, the mechanisms of perception and attention of a 5- and 7-year-old child are significantly different. The perception of preschoolers directly, attention is involuntary. They perceive surrounding objects that are in close proximity. Therefore, the preschooler is poorly oriented in the road environment. The attention of a small child is easily distracted by objects that carry emotional stress.
At 7 years old, the role of emotional perception persists. If we want to draw the child’s attention to road signs, posters, games, we must make them bright, able to revive the child’s imaginative thinking, in addition, 7-year-old children have absolute color sensitivity. It is interesting to note that in subsequent years this sensitivity decreases (from 100% to 55% by 12 years). At the same time, the so-called distinctive sensitivity to shades of colors improves with age, which is caused by the connection of a number of mental functions to the analysis of color sensations.
A progressive feature of 7 years of age is the ability to self-organize, to manifest independence in thoughts, in actions. The presence of these abilities plays an important role when a child crosses the roadway.
Due to the improvement of the functions of the cerebral cortex in children, there is selectivity of attention, the ability to differentially perceive incoming information. Despite the undoubted significance for the effective perception of just emotional stimuli, the 7-year-old child has access to the perception and more abstract properties of objects. In addition, increased susceptibility to the word. The child can be instilled the necessary rules of behavior on the street, set up to comply with traffic rules.
However, it also happens that, requiring the child to comply with certain rules of behavior, we do not achieve the goal. This is because the child cannot properly absorb verbal or so-called verbal information due to the individual characteristics of perception and the cognitive process. Some children follow age-related patterns in development, and their ability to perceive visual, motor, and auditory information is uniformly formed. In other children, the leading model, or perception system, for example, the visual one, stands out. In this case, the child better assimilates the information received through visual perception. But on the other hand, the channel for receiving information through touch, movement can be turned off; he does not have a sense of the body, movements are awkward. Or, sometimes, the child perceives the information well by ear, listens carefully to the teacher, grabs on the fly, and at home it is difficult to get him to take up the textbook. But he will be happy to listen if someone volunteers to read. So, in this case, the leading is the auditory model. If motor perception is leading, then it is difficult for a child to delve into instructions, rules, and other abstract information. He perceives only those words that easily come to life in his images. In order to comprehend, the child must touch, feel, emotionally and motorly experience the sensations associated with this verbal information. The standard approach in this case causes the child’s self-determination, such a school student easily falls into the category of difficult to educate. in this case, the auditory model is leading. If motor perception is leading, then it is difficult for a child to delve into instructions, rules, and other abstract information. He perceives only those words that easily come to life in his images. In order to comprehend, the child must touch, feel, emotionally and motorly experience the sensations associated with this verbal information. The standard approach in this case causes the child’s self-determination, such a school student easily falls into the category of difficult to educate. in this case, the auditory model is leading. If motor perception is leading, then it is difficult for a child to delve into instructions, rules, and other abstract information. He perceives only those words that easily come to life in his images. In order to comprehend, the child must touch, feel, emotionally and motorly experience the sensations associated with this verbal information. The standard approach in this case causes the child’s self-determination, such a school student easily falls into the category of difficult to educate. emotionally and motorly relive the sensations associated with this verbal information. The standard approach in this case causes the child’s self-determination, such a school student easily falls into the category of difficult to educate. emotionally and motorly relive the sensations associated with this verbal information. The standard approach in this case causes the child’s self-determination, such a school student easily falls into the category of difficult to educate.
If the child has an acute visual or auditory susceptibility, and his muscle is weak, he will be well oriented in a calm environment; in the case of a sharp change, it may lose balance, fall or freeze in place as paralyzed. With poor visual perception, it is difficult for the child to navigate in a calm situation. Parents should know the peculiarities of their child’s perception and not leave him on the road without control on their part. At the same time, knowing these features, they can be rationally used for the development of the child. So, when mastering new knowledge and skills, when making contact with a child, one should rely on a leading model and at the same time try to increase the perception of other channels through physical exercises, games, walking, reading, drawing.
Given all of the above, it should be concluded that when working with children, it is necessary to diversify techniques, forms, methods as much as possible. In the classroom, you should use the teacher’s story, and the table, and layouts, and toy cars, and the stories of the students themselves, only in this case it can be assumed that the necessary information reached all children (children of all types of perception of information).
In order to navigate the road, to notice objects important for safety, the child must be careful. Unfortunately, the attention of a 7-year-old child is unstable, he is easily distracted. This is due to the fact that many body functions are in the infancy stage.
In response to a sound or light signal, 7-year-olds respond rather slowly. Compared with older children, the process of processing information in the central nervous system takes longer. Sharp signals or an unexpected appearance of the machine cause confusion, a spontaneous emotional motor reaction that is not analyzed, and, therefore, the choice of the optimal direction of movement is not made. The child easily loses self-control. Having noticed the source of danger, the child still cannot immediately figure out how far the car is from him and how quickly it will approach. He perceives a danger signal as a signal for action: to escape faster. But concentrating on the danger object, the child may not notice another machine, for which he himself may become a source of danger.
In addition, children of this age often and easily fall. This is due to the imperfection of physiological mechanisms that ensure the balance of the body or its restoration. Resistance to falling develops up to 12-14 years.
At the age of 7 to 10 years, the period of development of the ability to form a spatial movement program falls. This will give the student a much greater opportunity to control his body and organize behavior appropriate to the situation. Therefore, a large number of games, other exercises and activities are needed that would develop coordination and give greater freedom of ownership of your body.
However, in a 7-year-old child, coordination and accuracy of actions is ensured only through visual control. He is not able at this age to abstractly program actions without believing them in a court of vision.
Perhaps the whole point is that a significant role in this phenomenon is played by visual perception. The world of emotions is well fed by information received from the senses. And since the child receives the lion’s share of information, the most attractive and colorful, from the organs of vision, then visually controlled actions become significant for him. In this regard, the object becomes for him as if guiding. If something interests the child (a kite in the sky, a bird on the side of the road or a motorcycle, a kiosk, etc.), then all the attention is absorbed by this object, and he acts in accordance with what he sees.
Thus, both attention and motor reaction of a child are largely determined by the level of development of central regulatory mechanisms in him. A 7-year-old child has the prerequisites for organizing proper behavior on the road, but there are a number of features of the nervous system that limit the likelihood of just such behavior.
With fatigue, the functional state of many body systems decreases. After classes at school, younger students are less vigilant when crossing the carriageway than before school, during their time at school they have new impressions and worries, resulting in increased distraction and distraction.
Mobile, excitable children are more difficult to tolerate school activities that constrain their increased need for physical activity. Finding themselves out of school after school, they try to compensate for the lack of motor activity with sudden movements, jumps, and brawls. Moreover, their actions are impulsive, involuntary in nature.
When crossing a road, an adult accompanying a moving child needs to be vigilant so that the child doesn’t dart to the side for no reason, being distracted by a companion, dog or other thing that interests him.
The lack of discipline of an excitable child in this case is unintentional, and it is useless to blame him for disobedience. An adult will be more forward-looking if, right after school, before setting off on a road-way, the child will be allowed to bump with peers for about ten minutes, be discharged on a “cobweb”, “turtle” or other games.
In contrast to the mobile, slow-moving children are more disciplined. But in the event of an unforeseen situation, their reaction is more delayed.
There are children who need to be distinguished especially from the bulk of the students. Despite reaching the age of 7, they may lag behind in the development of voluntary attention, organization. One of the reasons may be the lack of formation of the neurophysiological mechanisms of higher nervous activity corresponding to this age. On the other hand, some children do not adapt well to the pace of school work.
From 5 to 20% of primary schoolchildren are not able to adapt to the conditions of study at school. As a result of this, their anxiety, distraction, and inability to arbitrarily regulate their behavior increase; these children need special attention from adults both when crossing the road and in school settings. It is necessary to find out the reasons leading to school maladjustment, and do everything possible to eliminate it. Such children must be met after graduation, not only during the period of study in the first grade, but also much longer.
A factor such as left-handedness should be taken into account. It was revealed that left-handed pedestrians are more often victims of various accidents and injuries, left-handed drivers are twice as likely to be victims of car accidents. Left-handed people give birth to 10% of people (on average). With age, this figure decreases due to the fact that the majority of left-handed people are retrained, as well as due to their shorter life expectancy (according to average statistics). At the same time, left-handed children are often distinguished by their outstanding abilities for art and mathematics.
The process of retraining lefthanders (especially the forcible transition from left to right handedness) is accompanied by significant adverse changes in the central nervous system and metabolic processes. It is possible that it is retraining left-handed people who are more often in a state that helps to reduce vigilance on the road, distraction, slow reaction, and a decrease in motor coordination abilities. It is almost impossible for a teacher to foresee in his work all the nuances of the behavior of such children on the road. He must be concerned about the possible consequences of the parents of these children, and then an accident with the child can be prevented.
A left-handed child lives in somewhat less comfortable conditions, because, firstly, he feels different from other peers, and secondly, all household tools, as a rule, are adapted for the right hand. A teacher should not retrain a left-hander into a right-hander. It is advisable to create such conditions under which the child would not feel flawed from his left-handedness, but used it to the same extent as right-handed right-handedness. However, this is impossible on the road, and therefore left-handed people should be more trained, disciplined, attentive.
Thus, at the age of 7, very important changes take place in the student’s body, allowing him to participate in road traffic at a new level (higher than that of a preschooler). However, at this age, orientation opportunities are limited.
Separate seven-year-olds themselves can cross the street. They should develop and maintain their independence in this regard, that is, it is necessary to implement a differentiated approach to children. It is necessary to take into account the individual characteristics of children, the degree of complexity and danger of the path. It is hardly possible to allow a 7-year-old child to cross the roadway alone if this child is either excitable, or inhibited, or physically weakened, or retrained by a left-handed person, or has deviations in health status, or developmental delay, or there is a problem of school adaptation. Unfortunately, most students of this age fall into at least one of these categories.
Granting independence to any seven-year-old child in overcoming the carriageway of the road can be allowed, firstly, only as an exception and, first of all, provided that the road is not very dangerous, and secondly, parents must be confident in the child, his organization, responsibility, discipline. In addition, parents must first make sure that their child is serious about the rules of the road and follows them diligently. At the same time, it is important not only to observe his behavior during joint transitions, but, letting him go alone, to trace this behavior. However, being an exceptional occurrence, such cases of giving independence to a first-grader should be known to the teacher, as well as the reasons prompting parents not to accompany the child on the way to school or home. General rule
The eight-year age is noteworthy in that it is removed from the crisis periods: 6-7 years and 10-11 years. The functional state of the body of these children is most stable and adaptive to environmental influences compared with younger and older schoolchildren.
It should also be noted the increase in the stability of attention of eight-year-olds. In 50% of cases, attention characteristics of a given age correspond to those in adults. This level of attention is very close to the level of attention of older children (from 8 to 15 years).
The period from 7 to 8 years is characterized by the most intensive development of the motor function and various analyzer systems that ensure the perception of external signals. Significant shifts are taking place in improving visual perception. The field of view is increasing: in comparison with a 6-year-old child, the boundaries of the field of view expand more than 10 times. As a rule, the expansion of the field of view with age occurs due to an increase in the outer boundary, which determines the possibility of viewing on the right and left. An 8-year-old child is characterized by an expansion of the field of view due to an increase in the upper boundaries. This is of no small importance for the orientation of children on road signs, cars, etc. Previously, due to their small stature and limited field of vision, not all road objects (falling into the field of vision of an adult) were equally accessible to them. By the age of 8, significant changes are taking place in this regard, contributing to improved orientation on the road. In addition, at this age, the eye becomes more accurate: 1/3 for a close distance and 1/10 for a long (10 m) distance (compared with the previous age). Therefore, eight years is the average lower age limit when a child can take the first, completely independent steps as a road user. He must be prepared for these steps. This shows the significance that a year of study in first grade acquires. This is the year of the maximum acquisition of knowledge and the formation of physiology. 1/3 for a short distance and 1/10 for a long (10 m) distance (compared with the previous age). Therefore, eight years is the average lower age limit when a child can take the first, completely independent steps as a road user. He must be prepared for these steps. This shows the significance that a year of study in first grade acquires. This is the year of the maximum acquisition of knowledge and the formation of physiology. 1/3 for a short distance and 1/10 for a long (10 m) distance (compared with the previous age). Therefore, eight years is the average lower age limit when a child can take the first, completely independent steps as a road user. He must be prepared for these steps. This shows the significance that a year of study in first grade acquires. This is the year of the maximum acquisition of knowledge and the formation of physiology.
At the same time, the function of the vestibular apparatus is being improved. The resistance of motor coordination to stimulation of the vestibular apparatus begins to manifest itself actively, starting from the age of 8. Consequently, from this age, children become more resistant to falling.
Thanks to the active development of brain functions, the perception of the shape of objects or image is improved. This gives an 8-year-old child more than a 7-year-old child more likely to notice the danger. To increase these chances, child training is so important.
Thus, by the age of 8 years, the level of development of visual, motor function, attention allows the child to navigate well on the road. However, in case of unexpected danger, the child is required to quickly analyze the situation and choose one of the options for response, speed in making decisions and responding to the situation. 8-year-old children do not yet possess these qualities properly. They will be formed later.
However, in this age period, children are very sensitive to the effects of targeted training of motor and mental functions. In this regard, close to him and 9 years of age. After 8 years of life, changes take place in the child’s body, which significantly affect his behavior on the road.
From the age of nine, the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex are actively involved in the management of analyzer systems. In the organization of behavior, the mechanism of central teams begins to operate. What does it mean? Due to the activation of the frontal lobes of the brain, responsible for the regulation of higher forms of human behavior, the ability to make decisions based on the analysis of various kinds of information appears: both specific, coming from the senses, and abstract, for example, from verbal instruction. This means that there comes a period when the child begins to actively contrast the authority of an adult with his own opinion. At the same time, the process of perception of visual, auditory and other information is being improved. From a number of simultaneously perceived signals, the student can identify the most important for this moment. Moreover, he has the ability to predict the possibility of an action. When crossing the road in a dangerous place, he can already calculate the probability of approaching the car. Thus, the child enters the age when, on the one hand, he can already make some decisions, on the other hand, constant monitoring by adults is required.